SPARC Report No.9

SPARC Report N°9 (2019) of The SPARC LOTUS Activity: SPARC/IO3C/GAW Report on Long-term Ozone Trends and Uncertainties in the Stratosphere

Prepared by the SPARC LOTUS Activity, edited by I. Petropavlovskikh, S. Godin-Beekmann, D.Hubert, R. Damadeo, B. Hassler, and V. Sofieva.

GAW Report No. 241

WCRP Report 17/2018

SPARC Report No. 9

DOI 10.17874/f899e57a20b

 Full LOTUS Report (30.0 MB)
 Supplementary material (26.2 MB)

SPARC/IO3C/GAW, 2019: SPARC/IO3C/GAW Report on Long-term Ozone Trends and Uncertainties in the Stratosphere. I. Petropavlovskikh, S. Godin-Beekmann, D. Hubert, R. Damadeo, B. Hassler, V. Sofieva (Eds.), SPARC Report No. 9, GAW Report No. 241, WCRP-17/2018, doi: 10.17874/f899e57a20b, available at

Executive Summary

Table of contents

Cover Pages

Authors and Reviewers


List of Abbreviations

Chapter1: Introduction

Chapter 2: Observations and model data

2.1 Ground-based observations
2.2 Satellite observations
2.3 CCMI model data
2.4 Summary

Chapter 3: Challenges for trend studies

3.1 Consistency of ozone profile data records
3.2 Sampling bias and uncertainty correction characterisation
3.3 Summary

Chapter4: The LOTUS regression model

4.1 Regression methodology
4.2 Proxies
4.3 Sensitivity tests
4.4 Alternative approaches
4.5 The “LOTUS regression” model
4.6 Summary

Chapter 5: Time series and trend results

5.1 Satellite trends at native resolution
5.2 Time series in broad latitude bands
5.3 Combined satellite trends in broad latitude bands
5.4 Ground-based trends
5.5 Comparison between combined satellite and CCMI model trends
5.6 Summary of observed profile trends
5.7 Summary


Supplementary material

S.1 Chapter 1
S.2 Chapter 2
S.3 Chapter 3
S.4 Chapter 4
S.4.1 DLM estimated ozone changes from the BASIC composites
S.5 Chapter 5
S.5.1 Appendix A: Supplementary figures
S.5.2 Appendix B: Analysis of correlation between fit residuals
S.5.3 Appendix C: Table of LOTUS trend values